Most perioperative DVTs were clinically silent and formed spontaneously in proximal venous segments where there would be a risk for a PE. The overall incidence of DVT (5.6%) was low, suggesting effective DVT prophylaxis. Patients who underwent spinal surgical procedures were at a significantly lower risk for DVT, and future surveillance is not indicated in this patient group unless other conditions exist (paralysis, malignancy). Patients in whom a craniotomy was performed had a significantly higher risk of DVT, particularly when other risk factors existed. The low incidence of a fatal PE (0.07%) reflected that early detection and treatment of proximal DVT were facilitated by prospective VDUS surveillance in these patients.