A coccoid actinobacterium strain (designated YIM 70178(T)) was isolated from a soil sample collected in Qinghai Province, China. The isolate grew well with an optimum salt concentration of 10-15% (KCl, w/v) but scarcely or not at all without salt. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was A4alpha, L-Lys-gly-L-Glu. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown phospholipid and an unknown glycolipid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-8 and MK-9. The major fatty acid was anteiso-C(15:0). The DNA G+C content was 57.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 70178(T) was most closely related to the type strain of Yania halotolerans. DNA-DNA hybridization and comparison of physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics demonstrated that strain YIM 70178(T) was different from Yania halotolerans. The name Yania flava sp. nov. is proposed, with strain YIM 70178(T) (=DSM 16377(T)=KCTC 19047(T)) as the type strain. Based on the phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic position, as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis and 16S rRNA signature nucleotide data, the genus description of Yania is therefore emended and strains YIM 70085(T) and YIM 70178(T) represent a novel family of the suborder Micrococcineae, for which the name Yaniaceae fam. nov. is proposed.