Until recently, the massive development of industrial and smallholder oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations has generally been conducted according to the monocrop model. However, alternative cropping systems have emerged, based on more diversified systems that combine various crops within the oil palm plots. By giving this plant a status equivalent to that of a tree, these practices correspond to agroforestry systems. In the present study, 39 agroforestry systems were identified worldwide through a preliminary literature review, a review of NGO websites and expert surveys. Our results reveal five different types of oil palm agroforestry systems: (i) associations with livestock during the production phase of the oil palm; (ii) traditional African palm and food crop systems sustained over time; (iii) associations with food crops during the juvenile phase of the oil palm; (iv) systems developed by family farms that permanently associate other plants; and (v) prototype designs developed by research institutions, often at the request of local agricultural enterprises. The spatiotemporal description of these systems enabled us to identify associated ecosystem services. Building on various proposals of biodiversity insertion in a monoculture to convert it into an agroforestry system, the present study offers new perspectives for the sustainable development of palm oil production.