Prolonged middle ear development in Rhinella horribilis.
Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.
Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios, Fundación Otonga, San Rafael, Quito, Ecuador.
- Published Article
Journal of morphology
- Publication Date
Oct 01, 2018
Despite the benefit of the tympanic middle ear to airborne hearing sensitivity, anurans range in how soon they develop functional middle ears after transitioning to life on land. Previous evidence suggested that bufonids had particularly slow middle ear developmental rates, but precise timelines have not yet been published for this family. Here, we provide the first age-verified middle ear development timeline for a true toad species (family Bufonidae). We find that although middle ear development begins during metamorphosis in Rhinella horribilis, the middle ear remains incomplete 15 weeks after the transition from aquatic tadpole to land-dwelling toadlet. Using this new middle ear timeline, we discuss commonalities and differences in middle ear development among bufonids, as well as among Anura. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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The corresponding record at NLM can be accessed at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30152036