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Prolonged middle ear development in Rhinella horribilis.

Authors
  • Womack, Molly C1
  • Stynoski, Jennifer L1, 2
  • Voyles, Meredith K1
  • Coloma, Luis A3
  • Hoke, Kim L1
  • 1 Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • 2 Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica. , (Costa Rica)
  • 3 Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios, Fundación Otonga, San Rafael, Quito, Ecuador. , (Ecuador)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of morphology
Publication Date
Oct 01, 2018
Volume
279
Issue
10
Pages
1518–1523
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1002/jmor.20886
PMID: 30152036
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Despite the benefit of the tympanic middle ear to airborne hearing sensitivity, anurans range in how soon they develop functional middle ears after transitioning to life on land. Previous evidence suggested that bufonids had particularly slow middle ear developmental rates, but precise timelines have not yet been published for this family. Here, we provide the first age-verified middle ear development timeline for a true toad species (family Bufonidae). We find that although middle ear development begins during metamorphosis in Rhinella horribilis, the middle ear remains incomplete 15 weeks after the transition from aquatic tadpole to land-dwelling toadlet. Using this new middle ear timeline, we discuss commonalities and differences in middle ear development among bufonids, as well as among Anura. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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