We have made preliminary investigations into the effect of 33 different drugs on the survival of rat cardiac allografts, the drugs being administered to the allograft donor. All drugs were administered at LD50 i.v. to the graft donor 6 hr prior to removal of the organ. Especially effective were alkylating agents and antimetabolites. Pretreatment with cyclophosphamide, busulfan, methotrexate, azauridine, or bromodeoxyuridine prolonged the survival from 7 to more than 20 days. Pretreatment with chlorambusil, mannomustine, mannosulfan, 1-(2-chlorethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea, DTC, fluoruracil, or hudroxyurea prolonged the survival to more than 14 days. Several other alkylating agents and antimetabolites prolonged the survival moderately, i.e., to approximately 10 days or more. Purine antagonists, mercaptopurine and azathioprine, were totally ineffective as were also anticancer antibiotics and vinca alkaloids. Pretreatment with procarbazine or methylprednisolone alone increased the survival only moderately, whereas pretreatment with both of these drugs together increased the survival up to 27 days.