Mitogenic and prosurvival effects underlie the tumorigenic roles of prolactin (PRL) in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. PRL signaling is mediated through its receptor (PRLr). A proteomics screen identified the pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), a glycolytic enzyme known to play an important role in tumorigenesis, as a protein that constitutively interacts with PRLr. Treatment of cells with PRL inhibited pyruvate kinase activity and increased the lactate content in human cells in a manner that was dependent on the abundance of PRLr, activation of Janus kinase 2, and tyrosine phosphorylation of the intracellular domain of PRLr. Knockdown of PKM2 attenuated PRL-stimulated cell proliferation. The extent of this proliferation was rescued by the knock-in of the wild-type PKM2 but not of its mutant insensitive to PRL-mediated inhibition. We discuss a hypothesis that the inhibition of PKM2 by PRL contributes to the PRL-stimulated cell proliferation.