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Progranulin deficiency in Iba-1+ myeloid cells exacerbates choroidal neovascularization by perturbation of lysosomal function and abnormal inflammation

Authors
  • Takahashi, Kei1
  • Nakamura, Shinsuke1
  • Otsu, Wataru1
  • Shimazawa, Masamitsu1, 1
  • Hara, Hideaki1, 1
  • 1 Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 1-25-4 Daigaku-nishi, Gifu, 501-1196, Japan , Gifu (Japan)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Neuroinflammation
Publisher
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
Jul 25, 2021
Volume
18
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1186/s12974-021-02203-1
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Research
License
Green

Abstract

BackgroundAge-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the principal cause of permanent blindness among elderly individuals worldwide. Chronic inflammation in the subretinal space is associated with a progression of exudative AMD. Progranulin (PGRN) is a growth factor secreted from myeloid cells and plays an important role in controlling the lysosomal function. A deficiency in PGRN leads to inflammation of the neurons in the central nervous system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role played by PGRN in the size of the choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in laser-induced CNV mice.MethodsCNVs were induced in C57BL/6J mice by laser photocoagulation of the retina. The expression of PGRN and the accumulation of Iba-1+ cells around the sites of the CNVs were determined. Grn−/−, Grn+/−, and Grn+/+ mice with laser-induced CNVs were also studied. To evaluate the effect of macrophages on the inflammation, we used a macrophage cell line (RAW264.7) in which the expression of PGRN was knocked down by RNA interference and peritoneal macrophages derived from Grn−/− and Grn+/+ mice. These cells were incubated under hypoxic conditions (1% O2).ResultsIba-1+ myeloid cells migrated and accumulated in the photocoagulation-induced CNV areas, and the CNV lesions secreted high levels of PGRN in Grn+/+ mice. The size of the CNVs was larger in Grn−/− mice than in Grn+/− and Grn+/+ mice. In Grn−/− mice, the number of ocular-infiltrating Iba-1+ cells around the CNV was higher, and these cells produced more VEGF-A than the cells in the Grn+/+ mice. PGRN-silencing of RAW264.7 cells led to abnormal activation of the cells. In addition, hypoxic conditions promoted the production of proangiogenic and proinflammatory cytokines from PGRN-deficient macrophages. Interestingly, the expression level of lysosome-associated proteins and the number of activated lysosomes increased in PGRN-deficient macrophages.ConclusionsThese findings indicate that PGRN deficiency in Iba-1+ cells activates the lysosomal function that then leads to abnormal inflammation. The aberrant activation of Iba-1+ myeloid cells might contribute to the progression of the CNV and the regulation of these cells might be a novel therapeutic target for exudative AMD.

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