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The Prognostic Value of Eosinophil Recovery in COVID-19: A Multicentre, Retrospective Cohort Study on Patients Hospitalised in Spanish Hospitals

Authors
  • Mateos González, María
  • Sierra Gonzalo, Elena
  • Casado Lopez, Irene
  • Arnalich Fernández, Francisco
  • Beato Pérez, José Luis
  • Monge Monge, Daniel
  • Vargas Núñez, Juan Antonio
  • García Fenoll, Rosa
  • Suárez Fernández, Carmen
  • Freire Castro, Santiago Jesús
  • Mendez Bailon, Manuel
  • Perales Fraile, Isabel
  • Madrazo, Manuel
  • Pesqueira Fontan, Paula Maria
  • Magallanes Gamboa, Jeffrey Oskar
  • González García, Andrés
  • Crestelo Vieitez, Anxela
  • Fonseca Aizpuru, Eva María
  • Aranguren Arostegui, Asier
  • Coduras Erdozain, Ainara
  • And 5 more
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Clinical Medicine
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Jan 15, 2021
Volume
10
Issue
2
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/jcm10020305
PMID: 33467585
PMCID: PMC7830154
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Article
License
Green

Abstract

Objectives: A decrease in blood cell counts, especially lymphocytes and eosinophils, has been described in patients with serious Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but there is no knowledge of their potential role of the recovery in these patients’ prognosis. This article aims to analyse the effect of blood cell depletion and blood cell recovery on mortality due to COVID-19. Design: This work was a retrospective, multicentre cohort study of 9644 hospitalised patients with confirmed COVID-19 from the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine’s SEMI-COVID-19 Registry. Setting: This study examined patients hospitalised in 147 hospitals throughout Spain. Participants: This work analysed 9644 patients (57.12% male) out of a cohort of 12,826 patients ≥18 years of age hospitalised with COVID-19 in Spain included in the SEMI-COVID-19 Registry as of 29 May 2020. Main outcome measures: The main outcome measure of this work is the effect of blood cell depletion and blood cell recovery on mortality due to COVID-19. Univariate analysis was performed to determine possible predictors of death, and then multivariate analysis was carried out to control for potential confounders. Results: An increase in the eosinophil count on the seventh day of hospitalisation was associated with a better prognosis, including lower mortality rates (5.2% vs. 22.6% in non-recoverers, OR 0.234; 95% CI, 0.154 to 0.354) and lower complication rates, especially regarding the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (8% vs. 20.1%, p = 0.000) and ICU admission (5.4% vs. 10.8%, p = 0.000). Lymphocyte recovery was found to have no effect on prognosis. Treatment with inhaled or systemic glucocorticoids was not found to be a confounding factor. Conclusion: Eosinophil recovery in patients with COVID-19 who required hospitalisation had an independent prognostic value for all-cause mortality and a milder course.

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