Relationship between levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and neopterin and changes of left ventricular function was studied in 23 patients with heart failure (mean age 48.5+/-11.5 years) subjected to transplantation of autologous bone marrow cells (TABMC). Cells were administered intracoronary irrespective of coronary revascularization (in 11 patients) or during angioplasty (in 5 patients), intracoronary or intra-cardially during aorto coronary bypass surgery (in 7 patients). Reverse correlation was observed between left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and stroke volume (SV) and blood plasma levels of CRP and neopterin. Efficacy of functional regeneration of the myocardium assessed 1 month after TABMC was related to blood plasma levels of CRP and neopterin before treatment. In all patients with normal initial levels of markers of inflammation EF and SV rose. Among patients with initially elevated levels of CRP and neopterin more positive changes of EF and SV occurred in those subjects in whom lowering of inflammation markers took place during 1 month after TABMC.