The role of bcl 10, a recently cloned apoptosis-associated gene, in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL) is unknown. Here we determined the role of bcl 10 gene rearrangement on prognosis. Bcl 10 rearrangement was examined by Southern blot. Bcl 10 rearrangement was detected in 20 of 137 (14.6%) samples of DLBL. The frequency of bcl 10 rearrangement was higher in extranodal (eight of 38 cases, 21%) than in nodal (12 of 99, 12%) DLBL. The survival rate in patients with bcl 10 rearrangement tended to be better than in those with germ-line bcl 10, albeit statistically insignificant probably due to the small population sample. The superior prognosis in patients with bcl 10 rearrangement might be due to bcl 10-induced enhanced apoptosis.