There is increasing evidence that inflammation-based prognostic scores are stage-independent predictors of poor outcome in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, these findings were observed in a small-sized study comparing the prognostic value of these scores for patients after curative resection for HCC. We retrospectively analyzed 717 consecutive patients with HCC who underwent curative liver resection at Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital & Atomic Bomb Survivors Hospital. Clinicopathological variables including preoperative inflammation-based prognostic scores, such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, Controlling Nutritional Status score, prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and Glasgow Prognostic Score were analyzed. The prognostic value of these scores was compared by the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. The integrate area under the curve of PNI, Controlling Nutritional Status score, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and Glasgow Prognostic Score were 0.6751, 0.6435, 0.5845, 0.5276, and 0.5351 for overall survival (OS), respectively, and 0.5955, 0.5694, 0.4692, 0.4873, and 0.5272 for disease-free survival, respectively. Multivariate analyses for prognosis factor in HCC patients showed that PNI was an independent predictor of both OS (HR 0.91, P < 0.001) and disease-free survival (HR 0.94, P < 0.001). When the patients were divided into high and low PNI groups, the patients in the low PNI group had significant poorer OS (P < 0.001) and disease-free survival (P < 0.001), even after background factors were matched between these two groups. PNI is superior to Controlling Nutritional Status score, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, or Glasgow Prognostic Score as a predictor of OS and recurrence-free survival in patients with HCC who underwent curative hepatic resection. © 2019 The Japan Society of Hepatology.