Data regarding the effects of progesterone and a progestagen on human normal breast epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis are presented here. In postmenopausal women, adding progesterone to percutaneously administrated oestradiol significantly reduces the proliferation induced by oestradiol. In vitro and in premenopausal women, stopping the administration of nomegestrol acetate triggers a peak of apoptosis. Fibro-adenoma and cancerous cells do not show this regulation of apoptosis. Progesterone seems to be important in normal breast homeostasis.