This contribution aims to define an analysis procedure for abnormal deposits in human tissues starting from in vivo characterization, down to the nanoscale using major instrumentation. Such an integrated approach is based on recent literature, but particularly on our research over the last twenty years on pathological calcifications. To this end, we begin by describing four successive analytical steps, on the injury site or physician’s surgery, at the hospital, at a typical physicochemical laboratory, and finally at a large scale (possibly multinational) facility. For the first step, we present various techniques which can be implemented on portable instruments. For the second step, commercial analytical setups are used. In a physicochemical laboratory, prototype or commercial setups are used and finally on large scale instruments, characterization techniques with better spatial resolution and/or higher sensitivity or techniques specific to synchrotron radiation are employed.