Efflux of Ca2+ from previously Ca2+-loaded heart mitochondria was measured after inhibiting respiratory activity. The efflux was increased by p-chloromercuribenzoate, methylmercuric chloride, Cu2+, Fe2+, 4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-2-trifluoromethylbenzimidazole (uncoupler). 1,1,1-trifluoro-3-(2-thienylacetone and indomethacin; after such increase it could be diminished by dithiothreitol. The induced loss of the Ca2+ was accompanied by a loss of endogenous adenine nucleotide. Methylmercuric chloride was particularly effective, since it was active at ratios of about 1 nmol/mg of mitochondrial protein. The non-respiring mitochondria were found to regenerate bound thiol groups after their original complement had reacted with thiol-blocking reagent. This regeneration was diminished by the Ca2+-efflux stimulatig agents that were not themselves thiol-blocking reagents, such as thyroxine, uncoupler, trifluorothienylacetone and indomethacin. The external exposure of thiol groups was also diminished by thyroxine, uncoupler and trifluorothienylacetone. The results support the proposal made previously that the membrane is maintained in a state of low permeability by adenine nucleotide and Mg2+ being bound to thiol-dependent sites.