Surface charge density and distribution play an important role in almost all interfacial processes, influencing, for example, adsorption, colloidal stability, functional material activity, electrochemical processes, corrosion, nanoparticle toxicity, and cellular processes such as signaling, absorption, and adhesion. Understanding the heterogeneity in, and distribution of, surface and interfacial charge is key to elucidating the mechanisms underlying reactivity, the stability of materials, and biophysical processes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) are highly suitable for probing the material/electrolyte interface at the nanoscale through recent advances in probe design, significant instrumental (hardware and software) developments, and the evolution of multifunctional imaging protocols. Here, we assess the capability of AFM and SICM for surface charge mapping, covering the basic underpinning principles alongside experimental considerations. We illustrate and compare the use of AFM and SICM for visualizing surface and interfacial charge with examples from materials science, geochemistry, and the life sciences.