We have recently demonstrated that rodents treated intranasally with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) suffered impairments in olfactory, cognitive and motor functions associated with time-dependent disruption of dopaminergic neurotransmission in different brain structures conceivably analogous to those observed during different stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). On the other hand, the proanthocyanidin-rich fraction (PRF) obtained from the bark of Croton celtidifolius Baill (Euphorbiaceae), a tree frequently found in the Atlantic forest in south Brazil, has been described to have several neurobiological activities including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which may be of interest in the treatment of PD. The present data indicated that the pretreatment with PRF (10 mg/kg, i.p.) during five consecutive days was able to prevent mitochondrial complex-I inhibition in the striatum and olfactory bulb, as well as a decrease of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the olfactory bulb and substantia nigra of rats infused with a single intranasal administration of MPTP (1 mg/nostril). Moreover, pretreatment with PRF was found to attenuate the short-term social memory deficits, depressive-like behavior and reduction of locomotor activity observed at different periods after intranasal MPTP administration in rats. Altogether, the present findings provide strong evidence that PRF from C. celtidifolius may represent a promising therapeutic tool in PD, thus being able to prevent both motor and non-motor early symptoms of PD, together with its neuroprotective potential.