We have investigated binding and functional effects of a new peptide YY analogue, [Pro34]peptide YY, at Y1 and Y2-like subtypes of receptors for peptide YY and neuropeptide Y. In binding studies [Pro34]peptide YY had a similarly high affinity as peptide YY to human Y1-like receptors in SK-N-MC cells, a human neuroblastoma cell line of presumed neurogenic origin, and HEL cells, a human cell line derived from a patient with Hodgkin's disease. In functional studies [Pro34]peptide YY stimulated Ca2+ elevations in both Y1-like receptor cell lines with similar potency and efficacy as peptide YY. In contrast to peptide YY [Pro34]peptide YY was 1000-fold less potent in binding to Y2-like receptors in porcine splenic membranes and lacked agonistic effects in another Y2-like receptor-mediated model system, i.e. inhibition of [3H]serotonin release from rat cerebral cortical slices. Thus, [Pro34]peptide YY is a highly Y1-selective full agonist of peptide YY/neuropeptide Y receptors. [Pro34]peptide YY could be useful for studying the importance of Y receptor subtypes in mediating peptide YY physiological actions.