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Principles and Challenges in anti-COVID-19 Vaccine Development

Authors
  • Strizova, Zuzana
  • Smetanova, Jitka
  • Bartunkova, Jirina
  • Milota, Tomas
Type
Published Article
Journal
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Publisher
S. Karger AG
Publication Date
Feb 01, 2021
Volume
182
Issue
4
Pages
339–349
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1159/000514225
PMID: 33524979
Source
Karger
Keywords
License
Green
External links

Abstract

The number of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients keeps rising in most of the European countries despite the pandemic precaution measures. The current antiviral and anti-inflammatory therapeutic approaches are only supportive, have limited efficacy, and the prevention in reducing the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus is the best hope for public health. It is presumed that an effective vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 infection could mobilize the innate and adaptive immune responses and provide a protection against severe forms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease. As the race for the effective and safe vaccine has begun, different strategies were introduced. To date, viral vector-based vaccines, genetic vaccines, attenuated vaccines, and protein-based vaccines are the major vaccine types tested in the clinical trials. Over 80 clinical trials have been initiated; however, only 18 vaccines have reached the clinical phase II/III or III, and 4 vaccine candidates are under consideration or have been approved for the use so far. In addition, the protective effect of the off-target vaccines, such as Bacillus Calmette-Guérin and measles vaccine, is being explored in randomized prospective clinical trials with SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. In this review, we discuss the most promising anti-COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials and different vaccination strategies in order to provide more clarity into the ongoing clinical trials.

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