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Principal component analysis reveals microbial biomass carbon as an effective bioindicator of health status of petroleum-polluted agricultural soil.

Authors
  • Onwosi, Chukwudi O1
  • Odimba, Joyce N1
  • Igbokwe, Victor C1
  • Nduka, Florence O2
  • Nwagu, Tochukwu N1
  • Aneke, Chinwe J3
  • Eke, Ifeanyichukwu E4
  • 1 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 2 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 3 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Applied and Natural Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria. , (Niger)
  • 4 Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Environmental Technology
Publisher
Informa UK (Taylor & Francis)
Publication Date
Oct 01, 2020
Volume
41
Issue
24
Pages
3178–3190
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2019.1603252
PMID: 30982397
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

We investigated a number of microbiological activities in the soil to serve as biomonitoring tools in assessing the ecotoxicity of diesel-contaminated soil samples during the different periods of bioremediation. Sawdust was used as the biostimulant for the biodegradation of artificial diesel-polluted soil samples. Soil microbial population, soil microbial enzymatic activities (catalase, lipase, dehydrogenase, urease, phosphatase and β-glucosidase), soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), nitrogen (MBN) and phosphorus (MBP), soil microbial respirometric index and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration were monitored to evaluate the efficiency of the bioremediation process. After a period of 56 d, total petroleum hydrocarbon content reduced from 14,221 to 270 mg/kg. The parameter estimation using the nth-order kinetic model revealed that the first-order rate constants (k) for TPH removal were 4.417 d-1 and 0.2670 d-1 for sawdust-amended and unamended soil, respectively. This implied that, the sawdust amendment resulted in reaction rate 16.5 times faster than unamended soil. Thus, the biological indicators were generally more pronounced in biostimulated soil than the attenuated soil. However, to evaluate the efficiency of the sawdust-assisted bioremediation, principal component analysis, which was used in selecting the most sensitive bioindicators. It was observed that microbial biomass carbon, catalase, lipase and dehydrogenase were the most responsive bioparameters. A positive relationship between TPH removal and the four most sensitive bioparameters suggests that the use of four biological activities have proven to be effective monitoring tools for evaluating the efficiency of a bioremediation strategy.

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