Half a century has passed since the first report of the influence of odors on mice. Odors are known to influence behavior (signaling effect) and affect the physiology (primer effect) of mice. This review focuses on summarizing the primer effects found so far in female and male mice. Odors from conspecifics of the opposite sex had the tendency to enhance reproductive activities, whereas odors from conspecifics of the same sex diminish them. Only 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, one of the odor components identified in group-housed females, has been reported to have a suppressive influence on both males and females by lowering reproductive activities. Studies showed progress from the discovery of phenomena to the identification of odor components that cause such changes in reproductive organs and related neuroendocrinological changes. Compared to studies on the mechanisms of primer effects in females, the mechanisms in males are not yet clarified, and detailed studies on effects on the reproductive organs are still in primitive stages especially for males. Hypotheses on the influence of changes in the concentration of testosterone, estrogen, and prolactin on spermatogenesis and sperm maturation after exposure to odors are discussed.