Two cases of primary malignant lymphoma of the uterine cervix are reported. Both were confirmed by histology as high grade B cell lymphomas. In one case, the diagnosis was made on a second colposcopic biopsy after an initial cervical smear and colposcopic biopsy were negative. In the second case, dyskaryotic cells of uncertain type were identified in a cervical smear taken at colposcopy performed as part of follow up for previous cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)I. The cytologic features and differential diagnosis of this rare cervical neoplasm are discussed, with emphasis on the role of the Papanicolaou smear in the initial diagnosis of this tumour.