Repeated intra-vaginal inoculation of mice with inactivated type 2 herpes simplex virus induced cervical carcinoma in approximately 50% of mice. Prior immunization with subunit vaccine Ac NFU1(S-) BHK reduced the frequency of cervical carcinoma to 19%. Inoculation of mice with a control preparation of uninfected cell extract never induced preinvasive or invasive cervical cancer. There was evidence of an antibody response in every vaccinated and/or innoculated animal. Mice developing cervical cancer had a significantly higher antibody titre to type 2 herpes virus than mice not developing cancer. These results are in general accord with sero-epidemiological studies of preinvasive and invasive cervical carcinoma in human subjects and suggests that this experimental model may be appropriate for further investigation of prevention of human cervical cancer by vaccination.