Affordable Access

deepdyve-link
Publisher Website

LytR-CpsA-Psr Glycopolymer Transferases: Essential Bricks in Gram-Positive Bacterial Cell Wall Assembly.

Authors
  • Stefanović, Cordula1
  • Hager, Fiona F1
  • Schäffer, Christina1
  • 1 Department of NanoBiotechnology, NanoGlycobiology Unit, Universität für Bodenkultur Wien, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna, Austria. , (Austria)
Type
Published Article
Journal
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Jan 18, 2021
Volume
22
Issue
2
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/ijms22020908
PMID: 33477538
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

The cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria contain a variety of glycopolymers (CWGPs), a significant proportion of which are covalently linked to the peptidoglycan (PGN) scaffolding structure. Prominent CWGPs include wall teichoic acids of Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcal capsules, mycobacterial arabinogalactan, and rhamnose-containing polysaccharides of lactic acid bacteria. CWGPs serve important roles in bacterial cellular functions, morphology, and virulence. Despite evident differences in composition, structure and underlaying biosynthesis pathways, the final ligation step of CWGPs to the PGN backbone involves a conserved class of enzymes-the LytR-CpsA-Psr (LCP) transferases. Typically, the enzymes are present in multiple copies displaying partly functional redundancy and/or preference for a distinct CWGP type. LCP enzymes require a lipid-phosphate-linked glycan precursor substrate and catalyse, with a certain degree of promiscuity, CWGP transfer to PGN of different maturation stages, according to in vitro evidence. The prototype attachment mode is that to the C6-OH of N-acetylmuramic acid residues via installation of a phosphodiester bond. In some cases, attachment proceeds to N-acetylglucosamine residues of PGN-in the case of the Streptococcus agalactiae capsule, even without involvement of a phosphate bond. A novel aspect of LCP enzymes concerns a predicted role in protein glycosylation in Actinomyces oris. Available crystal structures provide further insight into the catalytic mechanism of this biologically important class of enzymes, which are gaining attention as new targets for antibacterial drug discovery to counteract the emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria.

Report this publication

Statistics

Seen <100 times