There has been increasing awareness of the need to prevent child maltreatment. In this review, prevention programs that have been evaluated are critically assessed. This is based on computer searches of the relevant literature spanning the last decade and final reports regarding prevention programs to state and federal agencies. Although many programs have been implemented, relatively few have been evaluated, and of those that have been, many have serious methodologic flaws. Interventions that do appear promising include home visiting, lay counseling, group and family therapy, and education about sexual abuse. In addition, comprehensive programs that address the multiple contributory factors of child maltreatment appear to be a valuable approach. Suggestions are made as to how the practicing pediatrician might play a preventive role. Finally, there is a need for good evaluation research of prevention programs.