Introduction and hypothesisTo quantify the prevalence (previous month) of urinary incontinence (UI) and overactive bladder (OAB), to assess its relation with known risk factors and to characterize UI awareness and treatment.MethodsTelephone interviews were conducted in 1,934 Portuguese subjects aged ≥40 years. UI was defined according to the International Continence Society definitions. OAB was assessed through the Overactive Bladder Assessment Tool.ResultsThe prevalence of UI was 21.4% (95% CI 19.0–23.9) in women, 7.6% (95% CI 4.8–10.4) in men. Diagnosis (ever in life) was reported by 4.5% (95% CI 3.3–5.7) of the participants, from which 73.0% reported to have been treated for UI. OAB was reported by 29.4% (95% CI 26.6–32.2) of women and 35.1% (95% CI 29.6–40.6) of men. Obesity, hysterectomy and asthma in women, and age in men, were significantly associated with the symptoms.ConclusionsUI and OAB prevalences were high, but the proportion of individuals aware of their condition was low, emphasizing the need for better information among physicians and general population.