Objective To assess the prevalence of symptoms of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and parafunctional habits as well as to investigate their association with age, gender, and number of missing teeth. Methods This retrospective study is based on 4204 randomly selected patients who were examined to determine their symptoms of TMD, such as clicking, difficulty chewing, difficulty opening/closing, as well self-reported joint pain and parafunctional habits. Results Clenching/grinding was reported by 26.5% of the examined population, clicking by 14.8%, and difficulty chewing and closing by 3.6%. Significant associations between the number of missing teeth with clenching/grinding (p = 0.05) and difficulty chewing (p < 0.001) were detected. Age and gender showed significant effects on the examined parameters (p < 0.05). Discussion Understanding the TMD subjective symptoms in relation to age, gender, and tooth loss would be of great value for treatment planning and could provide other perspectives to establish preventive measures.