Plaque and saliva samples were obtained twice from 58 children at an interval of 1 year and examined for the prevalence of Streptococcus mutans on Mitis salivarius (MS) and Mitis salivarius bacitracin (MSB) agar. Two types of S. mutans colonies with different colonial morphologies were seen on both media. They were serologically identified as serotypes c/e/f and d/g respectively. The first type, morphogroup c/e/f, had the typical "frosted-glass" appearance. It was the most prevalent and was found in 97% of the children. The second type, morphogroup d/g, had a creamy marzipan consistency with a dull, granular surface, gray to brown in color and often with some liquid around or on top of the colony. Group d/g was detected in 21 children (36%) and then together with colonies of group c/e/f. Children infected with single or multiple morphogroups of S. mutans generally harbored the same groups 1 year later. There was a significant positive correlation between the proportion of S. mutans in plaque and their numbers in saliva.