To our best knowledge, this was the first time to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of psychological disturbances, including depression, anxiety, somatization symptoms, insomnia and suicide, among frontline medical staff, who were working with the COVID-10 infected patients directly. Patient Health Questionnaire Depression (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire scale (GAD-7), Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90) somatization, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and the suicidal module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview were used for online survey. A total of 606 frontline hospital staff and1099 general population were recruited. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, somatization symptoms, insomnia, and suicide risk in frontline medical staffs were 57.6%, 45.4%, 12.0%, 32.0% and 13.0%, respectively. Except for suicide risk, the prevalence of other psychological disorders in frontline medical staff were higher than those in general population (all p<0.01). Among the frontline medical staff, the daily working hours were associated with all psychological disturbance (all p<0.01), women with anxiety (p = 0.02), body mass index (BMI) with anxiety and insomnia (p = 0.02, p = 0.03). Age was negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and insomnia (all p<0.01). Finally, years of working and family income were negatively associated with suicide risk (p = 0.03, p<0.001). Our study demonstrates that during the outbreak of COVID-19, the frontline medical staff are more likely to suffer from psychological disturbances than general population. It is noticeable that daily working hours are a risk factor for all measured psychological disturbances, and some other variables may be involved in certain psychological disturbances of frontline medical staff. Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.