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Prevalence of Plasmodium spp. in the Amazonian border context (French Guiana-Brazil) : associated factors and spatial distribution

  • Mosnier, E.
  • Roux, Emmanuel
  • Cropet, C.
  • Lazrek, Y.
  • Moriceau, O.
  • Gaillet, M.
  • Mathieu, L.
  • Nacher, M.
  • Demar, M.
  • Odonne, G.
  • Douine, M.
  • Michaud, C. P. L.
  • Pelleau, S.
  • Djossou, F.
  • Musset, L.
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2020
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To implement future malaria elimination strategies in French Guiana, a characterization of the infectious reservoir is recommended. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between October and December 2017 in the French Guianese municipality of St Georges de l'Oyapock, located along the Brazilian border. The prevalence of Plasmodium spp. was determined using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Demographic, house locations, medical history, and biological data were analyzed. Factors associated with Plasmodium spp. carriage were analyzed using logistic regression, and the carriage localization was investigated through spatial cluster analysis. Of the 1,501 samples analyzed with PCR, positive results totaled 90 and 10 for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, respectively. The general PCR prevalence was 6.6% [5.3-7.9], among which 74% were asymptomatic. Only 13/1,549 were positive by RDT. In multivariate analysis, participants older than 15 years, living in a remote neighborhood, with a prior history of malaria, anemia, and thrombocytopenia were associated with an increased odds of Plasmodium spp. carriage. High-risk clusters of P. vivax carriage were detected in the most remote neighborhoods on the village outskirts and two small foci in the village center. We also detected a hot spot for both P. vivax and P. falciparum symptomatic carriers in the northwestern part of the village. The present study confirms a wide-scale presence of asymptomatic P. falciparum and P. vivax carriers in this area. Although they were more often located in remote areas, their geographic distribution was spatially heterogeneous and complex.

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