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The Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Injuries Among Pilgrims During the 2023 Hajj Season: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Authors
  • Alghamdi, Ghidaa A1
  • Alghamdi, Faisal A1
  • Almatrafi, Renad M1
  • Sadis, Arwa Y1
  • Shabkuny, Rozan A1
  • Alzahrani, Saad A1
  • Alessa, Mohammed Q1
  • Hafiz, Waleed A2, 3
  • 1 Department of Medicine and Surgery, College of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, SAU.
  • 2 Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, SAU.
  • 3 Department of Medicine, Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, SAU.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Cureus
Publisher
Cureus, Inc.
Publication Date
Mar 01, 2024
Volume
16
Issue
3
Identifiers
DOI: 10.7759/cureus.56754
PMID: 38650809
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Background Hajj, the annual Islamic pilgrimage, brings together over two million pilgrims in the city of Makkah to participate in a series of rituals. Given the physically demanding nature of the Hajj, pilgrims are susceptible to musculoskeletal (MSK) injuries and exhaustion. MSK pain and injuries are frequent occurrences among pilgrims, necessitating an assessment of the scope of this issue. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MSK injuries among pilgrims during the 2023 Hajj season. Methods This is a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study that was conducted in the city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during the 2023 Hajj season. Results A total of 463 pilgrims were included in the analysis. The most frequently reported types of injuries were muscular injuries (169, 45.4%), primarily characterized by pain (99, 58.6%), muscle spasms (55, 32.5%), and muscle tears (eight, 4.7%). The second most commonly reported MSK injury was bony injuries (97, 26.1%), which included fractures, followed by 79 cases (21.2%) of joint injuries, predominantly featuring pain (69, 87.3%) and joint prolapse (10, 12.7%). Notably, 27 pilgrims (7.3%) suffered from ligament injuries, including tears. Regarding the mechanisms or causes of these MSK injuries, the most frequently reported factors were fatigue (206, 55.4%), falls (76, 20.4%), crowding (34, 9.1%), accidents (30, 8.1%), and the use of wheelchairs (14, 3.8%). Additionally, it is noteworthy that muscular injuries were more prevalent among all age groups, particularly among young-aged pilgrims, while joint injuries were more common among elderly pilgrims. Conclusion MSK injuries are prevalent among pilgrims, with muscular injuries being the most frequently encountered. This underscores a noteworthy public health concern that necessitates attention from the Ministry of Health of Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2024, Alghamdi et al.

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