BackgroundMore than 210,000 medical workers have fought against the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hubei in China since December 2019. However, the prevalence of mental health problems in frontline medical staff after fighting COVID-19 is still unknown.MethodsMedical workers in Wuhan and other cities in Hubei Province were invited to participate a cross-sectional and convenience sampling online survey, which assessed the prevalence of anxiety, insomnia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).ResultsA total of 1,091 responses (33% male and 67% female) were valid for statistical analysis. The prevalence was anxiety 53%, insomnia 79%, depression 56%, and PTSD 11%. Healthcare workers in Wuhan were more likely to face risks of anxiety (56% vs. 52%, P = 0.03) and PTSD (15% vs. 9%, P = 0.03) than those in other cities of Hubei. In terms of educational attainment, those with doctoral and masters’ (D/M) degrees may experience more anxiety (median of 7.0, [interquartile range (IQR) 2.0–8.5] vs. median 5.0 [IQR 5.0–8.0], P = 0.02) and PTSD (median 26.0 [IQR 19.5–33.0] vs. median 23.0 [IQR 19.0–31.0], P = 0.04) than those with lower educational degrees.ConclusionsThe mental problems were an important issue for the healthcare workers after COVID-19. Thus, an early intervention on such mental problems is necessary for healthcare workers.