Elevated blood cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) is a significant cause of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to estimate national and zonal prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in Nigeria to help guide targeted public health programs. This is a systematic review and synthesis of publicly available epidemiologic data on hypercholesterolemia in Nigeria. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, and Africa Journals Online for studies on the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in Nigeria published between 1990 and 2018. We used a random-effects meta-analysis (Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation) and meta-regression model to estimate the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in Nigeria in 1995 and 2015. In total, 13 studies (n = 16,981) were retrieved. The pooled crude prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in Nigeria was 38% (95% confidence interval: 26-51), with prevalence in women slightly higher (42%, 23-63) compared with men (38%, 20-58). The prevalence was highest in the South-south (53%, 38-68) and lowest in the South-west (3%, 2-4) and North-east (4%, 2-7). Urban dwellers had a significantly higher rate (52%, 24-79) compared with rural dwellers (10%, 6-15). We estimated over 8.2 million persons (age-adjusted prevalence 16.5%) aged 20 years or more had hypercholesterolemia in Nigeria in 1995, increasing to 21.9 million persons (age-adjusted prevalence 25.9%) in 2015. Our findings suggest a high prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in Nigeria. Urbanization, lifestyles, diets, and culture appear to be driving an increasing prevalence, especially among women. Population-wide awareness and education on reducing elevated cholesterol levels and associated risks should be prioritized. Copyright © 2019 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.