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Prevalence and factors of T-score discordance between hip and spine among middle-aged and elderly Malaysians

  • Chan, Chin Yi1
  • Subramaniam, Shaanthana1
  • Mohamed, Norazlina1
  • Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman1
  • Muhammad, Norliza1
  • Fairus, Ahmad1
  • Ng, Pei Yuen2
  • Jamil, Nor Aini2
  • Aziz, Noorazah Abd1
  • Chin, Kok-Yong1, 3
  • 1 Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Cheras, 56000, Malaysia , Cheras (Malaysia)
  • 2 Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Campus, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, 50300, Malaysia , Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
  • 3 Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China , Shanghai (China)
Published Article
Archives of Osteoporosis
Publication Date
Sep 12, 2020
DOI: 10.1007/s11657-020-00821-5
Springer Nature


SummaryT-score discordance between hip and spine is a common problem in the diagnosis of osteoporosis based on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Not much information on the prevalence and risk factors of this problem is available in Malaysia. Our study found that factors like age, height, physical activity and menopausal status should be taken into account in the diagnosis of osteoporosis.Introduction and objectiveT-score discordance between hip and spine is a common problem in bone mineral density assessment. A difference ≥ 1 standard deviation (SD) (regardless of diagnostic class) is considered minor, and a difference more than one diagnostic class is considered major discordance. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors of hip and spine T-score discordance in a population aged ≥ 40 years in Klang Valley, Malaysia.Subjects and methodsIn this cross-sectional study, subjects answered a demographic questionnaire and underwent body composition and bone health assessment using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Chi-square and binary logistic regression analysis were used to assess the prevalence of T-score discordance among the subjects.ResultsA total of 786 Malaysians (382 men, 404 women) subjects were recruited. The prevalence of minor and major discordance was 30.3% and 2.3%, respectively. Overall, factors related to T-score discordance were advanced age, decreased height, and being physically active. Sub-analysis showed that decreased height and being physically active predicted T-score discordance in men, being menopausal and Indian (vs Chinese) were predictors in women.ConclusionsT-score discordance between hip and spine is common among Malaysian middle-aged and elderly population. Diagnosis of osteopenia/osteoporosis should be based on the T-score of more than one skeletal site as per the current recommendations.

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