More than 80% cardiovascular disease (CVD) is preventable despite the fact that it is currently the ultimate cause of disability in the world. Assessment of the nationwide prevalence of dyslipidemia as a major CVD risk factor is essential to efficiently conduct prevention programs. We extracted data according to the cut-off points of dyslipidemia used in each study. All published papers on this topic in Iranian and international journals with affiliation of "Iran" were reviewed using standard keywords up to September 2011. We included all available population-based studies and national surveys conducted in individuals aged ≥ 15 years. We excluded studies with < 300 individuals, non-population-based studies, or duplicated citations. We analyzed by random effect method due to between-study heterogeneity. The estimated prevalence and 95% confidence intervals in 29 eligible articles and one un-published data for hypercholesterolemia (≥200 mg/dl), hypertriglyceridemia (≥150 mg/dl), high levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol ([LDL-C] [≥ 130 mg/dl]) and low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol ([HDL-C] <40 mg/dl in males, <50 mg/dl in females), in Iranian people were 41.6% (36.1-47.0), 46.0% (43.3-48.7), 35.5% (24.0-47.1) and 43.9% (33.4-54.4), respectively among both sexes and in both rural and urban areas. Hypercholesterolemia, high LDL-C and low HDL-C were more prevalent in women, whereas hypertriglyceridemia was more prevalent in men. All types of lipid component abnormalities were more prevalent in urban residents. Prevalence of dyslipidemia is considerable in Iran. It is necessary to enforce current measures of dyslipidemia control in the Iranian people to reduce CVD burden.