Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common type of diabetic neuropathy. It accounts for significant morbidity, including lower extremity amputations. There are few studies on the prevalence of DPN among Palestinian refugees in Jordan. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of DPN and its associated factors among Palestinian refugees with diabetes in the Nuzha area of Jordan, using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). A cross-sectional study was conducted at the UNRWA Nuzha Health Centre, Amman, Jordan, during the first quarter of 2016 (Jan 2-Mar 31, 2016). The Nuzha Health Centre was randomly chosen from the UNRWA clinics in Jordan. Study participants were selected by systematic random sampling. The number of participants was decided with Cochran's formula and adjusting the sample size by use of the finite population correction equation. 343 patients with diabetes were assessed for DPN using the history and physical assessment sections of the MNSI. We generated descriptive statistics, and tested for associations between variables using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify the best subset of predictors for the presence of DPN. We used SPSS version 22 to input and analyse data. This study was approved by the UNRWA Jordan Field Office and the Institutional Review Board at the University of Jordan, and by the Michigan Diabetes Research Centre, which gave its permission to use the MNSI. Written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Prevalence of DPN was 11% (37 of 343) based on the history section and 36% (122 of 343) based on the physical assessment section of the MNSI. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that significant predictors for DPN based on the history section of the MNSI were education level and duration of diabetes. Compared with participants with no education, the odds ratio (OR) for DPN was 0·13 (95% CI 0·04-0·49, p=0·0023) for participants with elementary education, 0·11 (0·03-0·49, p=0·0035) for those with high school education, and 0·04 (0·01-0·41, p=0·0070) for those with a diploma. Compared with participants who had diabetes for less than 10 years, the OR for DPN was 7·69 (1·99-30·30, p=0·0031) for those who had diabetes for 10-19 years and 32·26 (6·76-142·86, p<0·0001) for those who had diabetes for 20 years or longer. However, the predictors for DPN based on the physical assessment part of MNSI were age, duration of diabetes, and type of treatment for diabetes. Compared with participants aged 70 years or older, the OR for DPN was 0·18 (0·04-0·89, p=0·036) for those aged 40-49 years and 0·22 (0·06-0·82, p=0·024) for those aged 50-59 years. Compared with participants who had diabetes for less than 10 years, the OR for DPN was 32·26 (13·70-76·92, p<0·0001) for those who had diabetes for 10-19 years and 200 (34·48-1000, p<0·0001) for those who had diabetes for 20 years or longer. The OR for DPN was 0·23 (0·08-0·70, p=0·0094) for participants who were treated with oral hypoglycemic agents alone, compared those who were treated with insulin and oral hypoglycaemic agents. The prevalence of DPN is high among Palestinian refugees with diabetes in the Nuzha area, Jordan, consistent with the results of other studies of DPN in individuals with diabetes. There is a need for early detection and regular screening for DPN in patients with diabetes, with special attention given to patients with risk factors for DPN. None. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.