High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection plays an important role in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. A total of 11 549 women were enrolled from the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province. Each participant accepted hrHPV testing and completed a self-administered questionnaire about basic information and potential risk factors. The univariable and multivariable logistic regression model was used to explore the associations between variants and hrHPV infection. Our results showed that hrHPV prevalence was 16.09% in Hubei Province, among which, hrHPV was more likely to be positive in women aged 51 years or above (OR=1.65, 95% CI: 1.28–2.14), and in women who had symptoms of bleeding after intercourse (OR=1.32, 95% CI:1.17–1.50), had first sexual intercourse at the age of 18 years or below (OR=1.33, 95% CI:1.07–1.64), had at least three male sexual partners (OR=2.50, 95% CI:2.07–3.03), and who had been diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections (OR=1.50, 95% CI:1.12–2.03). Married women (OR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.55–0.78) and women who frequently used condoms (OR=0.75, 95% CI:0.67–0.84) had a relatively lower hrHPV prevalence. This study confirms that hrHPV infection was associated with age, marital status, symptoms of intercourse bleeding, history of sexually transmitted infections, and sex-related behaviors. Above all, this study provides a baseline database prior to obtaining vaccinations for dynamic tracking of the changes in hrHPV prevalence.