France has been identified with one of the highest rates of cannabis consumption of Western European countries. Yet we lack data in medical students who are at risk of addictive behavior. The objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of cannabis consumption and cannabis use disorder (CUD) among French medical students and their association with psychotropic drug consumption and psychosocial factors. Medical students were recruited from 35 French universities of medicine through administration mailing lists and social networks, between December 2016 and May 2017. Cannabis consumption was self-declared by anonymous questionnaire and CUD was defined by a Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) score ≥ 3. 10,985 medical students with a mean age of 21.8 years (± 3.3) were included, 32% of which were men. Overall, 1642 [14.9 (14.3; 15.6)%] reported cannabis consumption and 622 [5.7 (5.2; 6.1)%] students were identified with CUD at screening. Men were at two-time higher risk of cannabis consumption and three-time higher risk of CUD (22.4% and 10.6% for men vs. 11.5% and 3.4%, respectively, for women). In multivariate analyses, men sex, alcohol use disorder, tobacco smoking, parents' divorce, and history of physical assault and lower rates of lower rates of ≥ 40 weekly worked hours were identified as common associated factors for cannabis consumption and CUD. Hypnotic consumption, psychiatric follow-up, and history of sexual assault were identified as factors associated specifically with CUD, suggesting that these factors were associated with more severe cannabis consumption. Only 17% of students identified with CUD reported a psychiatric follow-up. Altogether, these results suggest that health policies should target cannabis consumption in medical students that is frequent, especially in men, with low rates of psychiatric follow-up. We have identified psychological factors and increased hypnotic drug consumption in CUD participants suggesting that psychiatric follow-up should be systematically proposed to this group.