The scope of this study is to estimate the prevalence of alcohol abuse and alcohol addiction and the respective associated factors in the urban population of a city of northeastern Brazil. It is a population-based cross-sectional study that investigated the consumption of alcohol of 270 people living in the urban area of Jequié, State of Bahia. Alcohol abuse, defined by a score of > 8 from responses to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Alcohol addiction was identified by a score > 2 obtained in the application of the Cut down, Annoyed by criticism, Guilty and Eye-opener (CAGE). The analysis used the logistic regression model. The prevalence of alcohol abuse was 18.5%. For alcohol addiction it was 10.4%. After adjusted analysis, the groups with greater alcohol abuse were men (OR = 5.56) and young (OR = 5.41). Professing evangelical belief was inversely associated with alcohol abuse (OR = 0.04). An association between alcohol abuse was established in the young, males, and smoking, whereas the inverse association was observed with those professing evangelical religious beliefs.