A study was carried out on the presence of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium larvae in fish and cephalopods caught in Sardinian waters. A total of 369 specimens of 24 different species of teleosts and 5 species of cephalopods were collected from different fishing areas of Sardinia. Larvae were detected and isolated by both visual inspection and enzymatic digestion. These methods allowed Anisakis type I and type II third-stage larvae and Hysterothylacium third- and fourth-stage larvae to be detected. The prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance were calculated. The results obtained showed the highest prevalence of Anisakidae in Zeus faber (100%) and of Anisakis in Micromesistius poutassou (87.5%). The highest prevalence of Anisakis type I larvae was in M. poutassou (81.2%), and that of Anisakis type II larvae was in Todarodes sagittatus (20%). The highest values for prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance for Hysterothylacium were found in Z. faber. These prevalences and the mean intensity and abundance were higher than those reported by different authors in other Mediterranean areas. This may be because the enzymatic digestive method used in this research resulted in higher recovery levels. The data suggest that Sardinia may be a high-risk area for zoonotic diseases and that measures such as information campaigns, aimed at both sanitary service personnel and consumers, should be employed to limit the spread of such zoonosis.