Pretreatment of biomass is a key step in the production of valuable products, including high-tech bacterial cellulose. The efficiency of five different pretreatment methods of Miscanthus and oat hulls for enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent synthesis of bacterial cellulose (BC) was evaluated herein: Hydrothermobaric treatment, single-stage treatments with dilute HNO3 or dilute NaOH solution, and two-stage combined treatment with dilute HNO3 and NaOH solutions in direct and reverse order. The performance of enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreatment products was found to increase by a factor of 4−7. All the resultant hydrolyzates were composed chiefly of glucose, as the xylose percentage in total reducing sugars (RS) was 1−9%. The test synthesis of BC demonstrated good quality of nutrient media prepared from all the enzymatic hydrolyzates, except the hydrothermobaric treatment hydrolyzate. For biosynthesis of BC, single-stage pretreatments with either dilute HNO3 or dilute NaOH are advised due their simplicity and the high performance of enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreatment products (RS yield 79.7−83.4%).