This chapter critically reviews the literature on surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP), and medical treatment for overactive bladder in women. The midurethral polypropylene sling was reported to provide a durable option with significant improvement. The tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure is based on a theory of pathophysiology of stress incontinence presented by Petros and Ulmsten. In their "integral theory" impairment of the pubourethral ligament is one of the primary cause of SUI. The transobturator sling was found to be effective in SUI patients with less incidence of perioperative complications and voiding difficulties. Prolapse of the uterus/vaginal apex and posterior vaginal wall may also be found in women with stress incontinence. There are many procedures for the correction of POP. Transvaginal repair of anterior and posterior compartment prolapse with polypropylene mesh has been developed in recent years. It is necessary to assess and compare the current quality of outcomes.