A novel fluorescent polyvinyl alcohol keto-derivatives nanoparticle (PVAK) has been prepared in one-step method. The nanoparticles has excitation and emission maxima at 349 and 462 nm, respectively. Based on the fluorescence quenching of PVAK by Cr(VI), we established a simple and selective fluorimetric method for the determination of Cr(VI) without separation of Cr(III) in water. The reaction conditions between Cr(VI) and PVAK were investigated in detail. Furthermore, the reaction mechanism between PVAK and Cr(VI) was also discussed. Under optimal experimental conditions, a limit of detection of 0.02 microg mL(-1) was achieved. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range 0.1-13.2 microg mL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9987. The proposed method has been applied to the selective quantification of Cr(VI) in synthetic samples and waste-water samples with the satisfactory results.