The purpose of this work was to prepare new biodegradable starch-cellulose composites, with starch, using casein and gelatin as natural nutrients. The physico-chemical properties of the starch films and cellulose fabrics with starch coatings were studied by Fourier transformation infrared analysis, laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy, swelling tests, mechanical tests, thermal analysis thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The susceptibility of the starch films to biodegradation was investigated, together with their resistance to thermo-oxidative aging. As a result of the formation of the starch films, both the casein and gelatin macromolecules were able to interact directly with the starch matrix and the fractions of unbranched amylose and branched amylopectin it contained. This interaction was visible as changes in the absorption bands of the polar groups, as revealed by infrared analysis. Spectral analysis of the cellulose fabrics coated with starch films suggests that hydrogen bridges formed between the micelles of long cellulose filaments and the micro and macro-fibers of the starch pectins. An applicative test revealed that when used as a covering for bean cultivation the cellulose-starch composites act as a fertilizing component, contributing to significantly improved growth of Phaseolus vulgaris in comparison to the use of unmodified cellulose.