The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of preoperative gastric secretory and hormonal response, to the appearance of Barrett`s esophagus in the esophageal stump following subtotal esophagectomy. Thirty-eight end-stage chagasic achalasia patients submitted to esophagectomy and cervical gastric pull-up were followed prospectively for a mean of 13.6 +/- 9.2 years. Gastric acid secretion, pepsinogen, and gastrin were measured preoperatively in 14 patients who have developed Barrett`s esophagus (Group I), and the results were compared to 24 patients who did not develop Barrett`s esophagus (Group II). In the group (I), the mean basal and stimulated preoperative gastric acid secretion was significantly higher than in the group II (basal: 1.52 vs. 1.01, p = 0.04; stimulated: 20.83 vs. 12.60, p = 0.01). Basal and stimulated preoperative pepsinogen were also increased at the Group I compared to Group II (Basal = 139.3 vs. 101.7, p = 0.02; stimulated = 186.0 vs. 156.5, p = 0.07. There was no difference in preoperative gastrin between the two groups. Gastritis was present during endoscopy in 57.1% of the Group I, while it was detected in 16.6% of the Group II, p = 0.014. Barrett`s esophagus in the esophageal stump was associated to high preoperative levels of gastric acid secretion, serum pepsinogen, and also gastritis in the transposed stomach.