Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) are neurodevelopmental disorders with overlapping diagnostic behaviors and risk factors. These include embryonic exposure to teratogens and mutations in genes that have important functions prenatally. Animal models, including rodents and zebrafish, have been essential in delineating mechanisms of neuropathology and identifying developmental critical periods, when those mechanisms are most sensitive to disruption. This review focuses on how the developmentally accessible zebrafish is contributing to our understanding of prenatal pathologies that set the stage for later ASD-ID behavioral deficits. We discuss the known factors that contribute prenatally to ASD-ID and the recent use of zebrafish to model deficits in brain morphogenesis and circuit development. We conclude by suggesting that a future challenge in zebrafish ASD-ID modeling will be to bridge prenatal anatomical and physiological pathologies to behavioral deficits later in life.