A prenatal diagnosis was performed in 51 pregnancies with a 1-in-4 risk of having a child with cystic fibrosis. The criteria for determining an affected fetus were based on the results of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) residual activity after inhibition by phenylalanine and by homoarginine, of total ALP activity, and of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTP) activity in the amniotic fluid taken between 16 and 19 weeks of pregnancy. The chromosomal analysis of amniotic fluid cells showed trisomy 13 in one case which was excluded from the analysis of biochemical assays. The biochemical assays were in the normal ranges in the amniotic fluid of 35 pregnancies: 26 have reached term and a normal infant has been born, 9 are still in progress. A deficiency of the ALP phenylalanine-inhibitable form, depressed values of total ALP and GGTP were observed in the amniotic fluid of 15 pregnancies: one pregnancy went to term and the infant had CF, in 14 cases the pregnancy was terminated, and meconium ileus was observed in ten of these cases. It was observed that the changes towards abnormal values became more significant with advancing gestational age and that 18 weeks appeared to be the optimum time for diagnostic amniocentesis.