The long-term continuous chromium(VI) removal from synthetic wastewater affected by influent hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and glucose concentrations were studied with an anaerobic-aerobic activated sludge process. It was observed that before activated sludge was acclimated, the chromium in the effluent increased immediately as the influent chromium increased. However, both Cr(VI) and total chromium (TCr) in the effluent significantly decreased after acclimation. In the acclimated activated sludge, the chromium removal efficiency was 100% Cr(VI) and 98.56% TCr at influent Cr(VI) levels of 20 mg/day, 100% Cr(VI) and 98.92% TCr at influent Cr(VI) levels of 40 mg/day, and 98.64% Cr(VI) and 97.16% TCr at influent Cr(VI) levels of 60 mg/day. The corresponding effluent Cr(VI) and TCr concentrations were 0 and 0.012 mg/l, 0 and 0.018 mg/l, and 0.034 mg/l and 0.071 mg/l, respectively. When the influent glucose increased from 1125 to 1500 mg/l at influent Cr(VI) dosage of 60 mg/day, the Cr(VI) and TCr removal efficiency with the acclimated activated sludge improved from 98.64% and 97.16% to 100% and 98.48%, respectively, and the chromium concentration in the effluent decreased from 0.034 mg/l of Cr(VI) and 0.071 mg/l of TCr to 0 (Cr(VI)) and 0.038 mg/l (TCr). The effluent COD and turbidity was around 40 mg/l and 0, respectively, after the activated sludge was acclimated. Further studies showed that after the activated sludge was acclimated, its specific dehydrogenases activity (SDA) and protein contents increased. The SDA and protein increased respectively 15% and 10% when influent Cr(VI) increased from 20 to 60 mg/day.