AimTo understand the current needs related to education and training, and other investment priorities, in simulated learning environments in Australia following a significant period of government funding for simulation-based learning.MethodsA mixed methods study, comprising qualitative focus groups and individual interviews, followed by a quantitative cross-sectional survey informed by themes emerging from the qualitative data.FindingsTwo focus groups and 22 individual interviews were conducted. Participants included simulation educators, technical users and new adopters. Survey data were collected from 152 responses. Barriers at the introduction and maintenance stages of simulated learning included irregular staff training resulting in inconsistent practice, and lack of onsite technical support. Educators lacked skills in some simulation and debriefing techniques, and basic education and research skills were limited, while technicians raised concerns regarding the maintenance of equipment and managing budgets.Discussion and conclusionDespite its effectiveness as an education tool, barriers remain at the introduction and maintenance stages of simulated learning environments. Efforts to improve the integrity and sustainability of simulation training should be informed by a comprehensive needs analysis. The resulting data should be used to address barriers in a way that maximises the limited resources and funding available for this important learning tool.