A single dose (5 x 10(8) organisms) of attenuated A- B+ Vibrio cholerae classical Inaba recombinant vaccine strain CVD 103-HgR or placebo was administered to 24 healthy young Thai adults in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of safety and immunogenicity. None of the volunteers experienced untoward reactions. The vaccine strain was recovered from 2 of 12 vaccines. The vibriocidal antibody response (the best immunological correlate of protection) was good: 11 of 12 vaccinees (92%) manifested significant serotype-homologous Inaba antibody rises with a peak reciprocal geometric mean titer (RGMT) postvaccination of 3,417; 9 of 12 exhibited significant serotype-heterologous Ogawa antibody rises (prevaccination RGMT, 180; peak RGMT, 2,874). Nine of 12 vaccinees had significant rises in serum antitoxin. None of the controls exhibited rises in vibriocidal or antitoxic antibody. This preliminary study further confirms the safety and immunogenicity of CVD 103-HgR live oral cholera vaccine and paves the way for larger community studies of this candidate cholera vaccine.