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Prefrontal cortex haemodynamics and affective responses during exercise: a multi-channel near infrared spectroscopy study.

Authors
  • Tempest, Gavin D1
  • Eston, Roger G2
  • Parfitt, Gaynor1
  • 1 School of Health Sciences, The Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 2 School of Health Sciences, The Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, Devon, United Kingdom. , (Australia)
Type
Published Article
Journal
PLoS ONE
Publisher
Public Library of Science
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2014
Volume
9
Issue
5
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095924
PMID: 24788166
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

The dose-response effects of the intensity of exercise upon the potential regulation (through top-down processes) of affective (pleasure-displeasure) responses in the prefrontal cortex during an incremental exercise protocol have not been explored. This study examined the functional capacity of the prefrontal cortex (reflected by haemodynamics using near infrared spectroscopy) and affective responses during exercise at different intensities. Participants completed an incremental cycling exercise test to exhaustion. Changes (Δ) in oxygenation (O2Hb), deoxygenation (HHb), blood volume (tHb) and haemoglobin difference (HbDiff) were measured from bilateral dorsal and ventral prefrontal areas. Affective responses were measured every minute during exercise. Data were extracted at intensities standardised to: below ventilatory threshold, at ventilatory threshold, respiratory compensation point and the end of exercise. During exercise at intensities from ventilatory threshold to respiratory compensation point, ΔO2Hb, ΔHbDiff and ΔtHb were greater in mostly ventral than dorsal regions. From the respiratory compensation point to the end of exercise, ΔO2Hb remained stable and ΔHbDiff declined in dorsal regions. As the intensity increased above the ventilatory threshold, inverse associations between affective responses and oxygenation in (a) all regions of the left hemisphere and (b) lateral (dorsal and ventral) regions followed by the midline (ventral) region in the right hemisphere were observed. Differential activation patterns occur within the prefrontal cortex and are associated with affective responses during cycling exercise.

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